I am currently working on a series of projects that explore the relationship between religion and the state. This research is attempting to explain the level of restrictions governments place on religion, especially religious minorities, and the implications these restrictions have for religious organizations, civil liberties and social conflict. I am also working with Jonathan Fox to chart the level of societal discrimination against religious minorities and to understand how this discrimination contributes to social conflict and to the state’s discrimination against religious minorities.

Research Interests

Religion and State Relations; Comparative Historical; Democracy; Global Religions


  • Ph.D., Sociology, University of Washington, 1984
  • M.A., Sociology, University of Washington, 1981
  • B.A., Social Work, Concordia College, 1976